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Title: Genetics Profiling and Reproductive Performance on Indonesian Wild Cattle, Banteng (Bos javanicus d’Alton, 1823): Understanding the Potency of Climate Change Impacts on Food Security
Authors: Bowolaksono, Anom
Andayani, Noviar
Supriatna, Jatna
Issue Date: 24-Jun-2013
Publisher: AIPI
Abstract: Climate change and its consequences will have a decisive impact on productivity in agriculture, including the animal husbandry and livestock. In environmental temperatures are greater than 30ºC, livestock will trigger physiological stress, increase respiration rates, decrease food intake, milk production and fertility caused the changing hormone in many mammals including cattle. The low reproductive performance affect dairy cow when/after the heat stress exposures, including decreased the length and intensity of the estrous period, decreased conception rate and decreased fetal growth and calf size.In the long run, the climate impacts will not only impact the quantity of lifestock but also the quality with both are related with food security globally. Indonesia has approximately 10 to 11 million head of cattle, including indigenous Bali cattle and foreign breeds. Bali cattle were domesticated directly from wild cattle banteng (Bos javanicusd’Alton, 1823) for several centuries ago. Banteng, is listed as ‘Endangered’ on the IUCN Red List. A species of wild cattle, the banteng occurs in Southeast Asia from Myanmar to Indonesia. The banteng has been eradicated from much of its historical range, and the remaining wild population, estimated at no more than 5.000 –8.000 individuals in the world, is continuing to decline (Hegdes & Tyson, 2002; The IUCN Species Survival Commission, 2000). The global captive population of banteng is 245 in 23 institutions (ISIS, 1993). In Indonesia at least 3 sites have been declared as banteng sanctuaries, those are Ujung Kulon, Meru Betiri and Baluran National parks. The domestic banteng, Bali cattle, differs little from the wild banteng, although it is smaller in size. Both of those cattles have the same number of chromosomes and will crossbreed. However, while the female hybrids are fertile, most of the hybrid males are sterile. Those cattles have several advantageous characteristics of the breed, such as its high fertility, its survival and capacity to survive under poor environmental and climatic conditions such as in harsh dryland areas in eastern Indonesia. Although the gestation period of the banteng is known in 280 days, it remains unclear if and how the reproductive physiology, including their estrous cycle. Banteng tends to be nervous and difficult to manage under extensive conditions and are poor milk producers, this indicates that Bali cattle have good genetic potential and benefit from beef consumer preferences. Despite those facts, the major problems are the increase in inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity in Bali cattle and information about genetic profile and reproduction performance of Bali cattle and banteng in Indonesia remains extremely limited. In the near future, it is important to examine the genetic profiling and reproductive performances on banteng to provide the best livestock of Bali cattle in the most developing countries, especially in Indonesia.
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